When to reflect
What type of reflective activity would have helped Debbie?
Click on the method(s) of reflection, based the principles outlined by Schon, that would be most useful to develop Debbie's practice. Then select the other answers to understand why they are not appropriate in this case.
Reflection before action
Although Debbie could have avoided this situation by using more appropriate and relevant resources, ie reflecting before action, she could also have reflected on this in action, when she realised that she wasn't reaching all learners.
Reflection in action
By reflecting in action, Debbie could have encouraged more peer-to-peer explanation. Even without the clock, she could have drawn a clock or series of clocks on the whiteboard to provide a visual representation for the learners. However, perhaps the best course of action would be to reflect in depth after her session.
Reflection on action
Reflection on action would be the most useful here, as Debbie could investigate in more depth the reasons why the methodology wasn't working. She could revisit the problem to look at how she might adapt her explanation to make it more suitable for that particular group. The rest of the session is closely linked to the vocational area, so there is no reason why the underpinning skills cannot be linked to the vocational area too. It is not always valid to look at specific technical or mathematical methodology, when it is not necessary to have a purely mathematical approach. The learners would be more likely to understand how to add up hours and minutes as totals of minutes if explained in a way relevant to them. The use of a clock would certainly help to clarify the concept.